The museum was opened on April 23, 1974. It is located in Albazino village near the archaeological monument of federal value - site of ancient settlement "the Albazinsky fortress" (a place of the first settlement of Russian people on the Amur river in the 17-th century). The unique subjects of the 17-th century which were found during archeological excavations are stored in the museum funds: the collection of crosses which belonged to defenders of the Albazinsky fortress, labor subjects, life subjects, arms samples.
The exposition of the museum tells us about Russian pioneers of the 17-th century, who came to this severe land. They returned there again in the 19-th century and built Albazinsky village. In the center of the exposition there is a complex about the history of the Albazinsky military settlement.
In 1990 the ethnographic complex "Cossacks' log hut and their farmstead" of the 19-th - the beginning of 20-th centuries was built on the territory of the museum. The farmstead consisted of a barn, a smithy, and a bathhouse. A church was built near the farmstead.
In 2000 the Albazinsky museum became the winner of the contest between provincial cultural institutions "Window to Russia" in the nomination "Museum of year" awarded by the newspaper "Culture".
In 2011 the building of the museum was revetted with a wooden semi-bar, a porch with an observation deck is attached to it. The territory round the museum is fenced with logs. The gate are made in the 19-th century style. On the building there is A.N.Dorokhina's memorial plaque - the foundress of the museum.
Today the Albazinsky museum is one of the attractive tourist objects of Russian Far East. It is the place of regional and All-Russian Cossack culture festivals, and local history conferences