The Museum was reconstructed from the Natural Science Study, which was stipulated by the University Statutes of 1804. Initially it included zoological, botanic and mineralogical collections kept in the University Library. It was situated in the ground floor of the south-eastern wing of the Main building. However, the collections appeared much earlier.In the end of the XVIII century Prince G.A.Potyomkin-Tavrichesky planned to establish university in Yekaterinoslavl in accordance with the order of Catherine II. Collections of animals, plants and minerals were gathered for the site of learning. But in 1798 Pavel I ordered to give them to Kazan Gymnasia, which was a basis for Kazan University.
In 1806 professor K.F.Fuks started giving a lecturer course on Zoology and Comparative Anatomy to thirteen students; among them there was the future famous writer S.T.Aksakov. Professor Fuks was the first museum supervisor. At that time the museum acquired K.I.Bronner's conchiologic collections consisted of 578 tests. It was also the time when the museum began collaborating with taxidermist F.A.Istomin.
Professor E.I.Eikhvald, Corresponding Member of St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences and future Honorary Member of Kazan University, played a great role in the Museum development in 1823-1827. In his time the Museum got the first systematized zoological and paleontological collections, which he gathered himself during the expedition to Aralo-Caspian Region. He established the Study of Comparative Anatomy, the basis for contemporary section of invertebrates. The first systematic catalogue of the collection called "Inventory of Kazan Emperor University Zoological Study" was also complied at that time.
The activity of Professor E.A.Eversman, Corresponding Member of St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, famous traveler and biogeographer, was of great importance for the Museum development during the period from 1828 to 1860. Making a speech at the meeting in 1839 he accentuated the necessity to study phenomena of "eternally young nature, which is neither ageing nor weakening, and where intellect finds new aspects for researches, no matter how many centuries it takes people to do it".
In E.A.Eversmann's time the Museum turned into completely systematized store of zoological collections and regularly acquired samples abroad at the expense of collectors, namely in Wiesbaden, Leipzig, Berlin and especially in Hamburg from the Trade Company owner Brandt. Owing to those acquisitions at present the Museum has a great number of valuable exhibits. According to official report, by January 1, 1844, there were 5735 units in the Museum collections. For the following decade the Museum got about 400 other exhibits: 57 stuffed mammals and 208 birds, which were mainly acquired from Brandt in Hamburg.
In 1860 N.P.Vagner became the Museum Director; during the period from 1871 to 1897 it was headed by Professor N.M.Melnikov. Years from 1890 to 1897 are notable for activity of M.D.Ruzsky, I.N.Strelnikov and S.I.Bilkevich. For that period of time they gathered 978 samples of birds of Kazan Province. A considerable role in the Museum establishment and development was played by taxidermists, who made numerous stuffed animals and ecological exhibitions of Vertebrata Section. The first taxidermist of the Natural Science Study was F.A.Istomin; laboratory assistants P. Romanov and E.D.Pyoltsam, S.I.Bilkevich and A.M.Laas worked there later on. Taxidermist Ya.P.Koksin had been working in the Museum from 1909 to 1966. At present Ye.V.Prokhorov is the Chief Taxidermist of the Museum (since 1974). A.A.Ostroumov became the Museum Director in 1897. In his time the Museum issued first systematic catalogues of fishes, compiled by V.I.Meisner in 1907, and birds, made up by Museum Supervisor S.D.Lavrov (1907-1909). Now the Museum staff is working on a new catalogue